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What Does Data Science Learning Include? A Comprehensive Guide

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    Data science is a rapidly growing field that combines statistics, computer science, and domain knowledge to extract insights and knowledge from data. With the increasing demand for data-driven decision-making, the need for skilled data scientists is higher than ever before.

    But what does data science learning include? In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore the essential components of data science learning, including programming languages, statistical concepts, data visualisation, machine learning algorithms, and much more. So, whether you're a beginner or an experienced professional, keep reading to discover what data science learning includes.

    Quick Links To Online Data Science Courses

    James Cook University

    Graduate Diploma of Data Science Online

    • 16 months, Part-time
    • 8 Subjects (One subject per each 7-week study period)
    • $3,700 per subject, FEE-HELP is available

    University Of New South Wales Sydney

    Graduate Diploma In Data Science (Online)

    • Duration: As little as 16 months
    • 8 courses
    • Study Intakes: January, March, May, July, September and October

    University Of Technology Sydney

    Applied Data Science for Innovation (Microcredential)

    • 6 weeks
    • Avg 14 hrs/wk
    • $1,435.00

    RMIT Online

    Graduate Certificate In Data Science

    • 8 months intensive, part-time
    • 4 Courses (7 weeks each)
    • $3,840 per course, FEE-HELP available

    Programming Languages

    Programming languages are an essential component of data science learning. Without knowing how to code, it's impossible to manipulate and analyse data. Here are some programming languages you should learn:

    Python: It's the most popular programming language used in data science due to its simplicity, versatility, and large community support. Python is used for data manipulation, machine learning, data visualisation, and much more.

    Python's ecosystem includes several powerful libraries, such as Pandas, NumPy, and Scikit-Learn, which make data manipulation and machine learning tasks easier.

    R: R is another popular programming language used for statistical analysis, data visualisation, and machine learning. R has a steep learning curve, but it's powerful and flexible. R's ecosystem includes several powerful libraries such as ggplot2, dplyr, and caret, which make data visualisation and machine learning tasks easier.

    SQL: Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to manage and manipulate relational databases. It's essential to learn SQL for data cleaning and data wrangling. SQL is used to perform operations such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE on databases.

    Statistical Concepts

    Statistical concepts are the foundation of data science. Understanding statistical concepts is essential to manipulate and analysing data. Here are some statistical concepts you should learn:

    Probability: Probability is the foundation of statistics. It's used to understand the likelihood of an event occurring. Probability is used in data science to model uncertainty and randomness. Probability concepts such as Bayes' Theorem, random variables, and probability distributions are essential for machine learning tasks such as classification and clustering.

    Descriptive Statistics: Descriptive statistics are used to describe the main features of a dataset. Measures of central tendency, such as mean, median, and mode, are used to summarise data. Descriptive statistics are used in data science to summarise data and identify trends and patterns.

    Inferential Statistics: Inferential statistics are used to make predictions and inferences about a population based on a sample. Inferential statistics are used in data science to make predictions about unseen data and estimate confidence intervals.

    Data Visualization

    Data visualisation is the art of presenting data in a graphical format. Data visualisation is essential to communicate insights and findings to non-technical stakeholders. Here are some data visualisation tools you should learn:

    Matplotlib: Matplotlib is a plotting library in Python used for data visualisation. Matplotlib is a powerful library that allows you to create several types of plots, including line plots, scatter plots, histograms, and bar charts.

    Tableau: Tableau is a data visualisation tool used to create interactive dashboards and reports. Tableau has a user-friendly interface that allows you to create visualisations quickly and easily.

    D3.js: D3.js is a JavaScript library used to create interactive and dynamic data visualisations. D3.js is a powerful library that allows you to create several types of visualisations, including tree maps, scatter plots, and heat maps.

    Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine learning algorithms are used to build predictive models from data. Understanding machine learning algorithms is essential to build accurate and reliable predictive models. Here are some machine learning algorithms you should learn:

    Linear Regression: Linear regression is a simple machine-learning algorithm used for regression analysis. It's used to predict a continuous outcome variable. Linear regression is used in data science to model relationships between variables and make predictions.

    Logistic Regression: Logistic regression is a machine learning algorithm used for classification problems. It's used to predict a binary outcome variable. Logistic regression is used in data science for tasks such as fraud detection and sentiment analysis.

    Random Forest: Random forest is a machine learning algorithm used for regression and classification problems. It's an ensemble learning method that combines multiple decision trees. Random forest is used in data science for tasks such as predicting customer churn and identifying credit card fraud.

    Deep Learning

    Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning that involves training artificial neural networks to recognise patterns in data. Deep learning is used in data science for tasks such as image recognition, natural language processing, and speech recognition. Here are some deep-learning concepts you should learn:

    Convolutional Neural Networks: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are used for image recognition tasks. CNNs are designed to identify patterns in images and classify them accordingly.

    Recurrent Neural Networks: Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are used for natural language processing tasks. RNNs are designed to process sequential data, such as text or speech, and identify patterns in the data.

    Generative Adversarial Networks: Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are used to generate new data based on existing data. GANs are used in data science to generate realistic images and videos.

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    Big Data

    Big data is a term used to describe datasets that are too large to be processed using traditional data processing methods. Big data is used in data science for tasks such as fraud detection, customer segmentation, and recommendation systems. Here are some big data technologies you should learn:

    Hadoop: Hadoop is an open-source software framework used for distributed storage and processing of big data. Hadoop consists of several modules, including HDFS, MapReduce, and YARN, which allow you to store and process large datasets efficiently.

    Spark: Spark is an open-source distributed computing framework used for processing big data. Spark is designed to be faster and more flexible than Hadoop and supports several programming languages, including Python and R.

    NoSQL Databases: NoSQL databases are used for storing and retrieving unstructured data. NoSQL databases are designed to be scalable and flexible and are used in data science for tasks such as sentiment analysis and social network analysis.

    Must-have skills you need to become a Data Scientist

    Data scientists' main responsibility is to analyse data, frequently vast amounts of it, in order to identify information that can be shared with business leaders, managers, and employees, as well as with government officials, medical professionals, researchers, and many other groups.

    Additionally, data scientists develop AI tools and technologies that are used in a variety of applications. In both situations, they collect data, create analytical models, train, test, and apply the models to the data.

    In order to succeed, data scientists need a variety of talents, including those in data preparation, data mining, predictive modelling, machine learning, statistical analysis, and mathematics, as well as experience with algorithms and coding, such as knowledge of Python, R, and SQL. Many are also charged with producing dashboards, reports, and data visualisations to highlight analytics findings.

    Important Traits Of Data Scientists

    Many qualifications, both professional and personal, are needed for data scientists.

    Data scientists also need a variety of soft skills, such as business understanding, curiosity, and critical thinking, in addition to their technical expertise. The capacity to communicate data findings and explain their relevance in a way that business users can easily comprehend is another crucial competency. This involves the ability to convey a story with data by fusing narrative prose and data visualisations in a prepared presentation.


    Although there are notable exceptions, a very strong educational background is typically needed to obtain the depth of knowledge required to be a data scientist.

    Data scientists are highly educated; 88% have at least a Master's degree, and 46% have PhDs.

    You could obtain a bachelor's degree in computer science, social sciences, physical sciences, or statistics to work as a data scientist.

    Computer science (19%), engineering (16%), mathematics and statistics (32% each) are the most popular disciplines of study. You will acquire the abilities necessary to process and evaluate large data if you earn a degree in one of these programmes.

    You still have work to accomplish once your degree programme is over. The majority of data scientists actually hold a Master's or PhD in addition to taking online courses to hone specialised skills like using Hadoop or Big Data searching.

    As a result, you can apply to master's degree programmes in a variety of related fields, including astronomy, mathematics, and data science. You will be able to transfer to data science with ease because to the abilities you have acquired throughout your degree programme.

    In addition to classroom instruction, you can put what you learn in the classroom into practise by creating an app, launching a blog, or dabbling in data analysis.

    Programming in R

    For data science, having an in-depth understanding of at least one of these analytical techniques is typically preferred. R was created especially to meet the demands of data science. You can use R to find a solution for any data science issue you run into.

    In actuality, 43% of data scientists use R to address statistical issues. R has a challenging learning curve, though.

    Learning is challenging, especially if you don't already know how to programme. But, there are excellent online tools to help you get started with R, like W3Schools, Udemy, CodeAcademy, and others that use the R programming language.

    Specialised Knowledge in Computer Science

    Coding in Python

    Along with Java, Perl, or C/C++, Python is the most popular coding language I often see necessary in data science employment. For data scientists, Python is a wonderful programming language. Python is the primary programming language used by 40% of respondents to an O'Reilly study.

    Python can be used for practically all of the phases required in data science operations due to its versatility. It can accept data in a variety of forms, and importing SQL tables into your code is simple. You can basically find every kind of dataset you require on Google, plus also allows you to generate your own datasets.

    Big Data Platform

    Even while it's not always necessary, doing so is frequently strongly encouraged. A key selling feature is having knowledge of Hive or Pig. Understanding cloud-based tools like Amazon S3 can be helpful as well.

    Apache Hadoop was rated as the second-most crucial expertise for a data scientist in a CrowdFlower assessment of 3490 LinkedIn data science jobs, receiving a 49% rating.

    Hadoop comes in handy in situations where the amount of data you have surpasses the RAM of your machine, or you need to send data to many servers as a data scientist.

    Hadoop may be used to send data fast to various system locations. Not only that. Hadoop can be used for data exploration, filtration, sampling, and synthesis.

    SQL Coding and Database

    Although NoSQL and Hadoop have grown to be significant parts of data science, it is still expected that a candidate will be able to construct and run sophisticated SQL queries. With the aid of the programming language SQL (structured query language), you can add, delete, and extract data from databases. You can use it to perform analytical tasks and change database architecture.

    As a data scientist, you must be fluent in SQL. This is so because SQL was created particularly to make it easier for you to access, share, and deal with data. When you use it to query a database, it provides you with insights. Its clear commands might help you save time and reduce the amount of programming required to complete challenging queries. Your understanding of relational databases will improve, and your reputation as a data scientist will grow if you learn SQL.

    Spark, Apache

    The most widely used big data technology globally is Apache Spark. Similar to Hadoop, it is a big data computing framework. The only distinction is how much quicker Spark is than Hadoop. This is because Spark caches its computations in memory whereas Hadoop reads and writes to disc, which slows it down.

    Apache Spark was created specifically for data science to speed up the execution of its complex algorithm. When dealing with a large sea of data, it assists in distributing data processing, which saves time.

    Data scientists can manage complicated unstructured data sets with their assistance. It can be applied to a single machine or a group of units.

    Data scientists may avoid data loss in data science thanks to Apache Spark. Apache Spark's speed and platform, which facilitate the execution of data science projects, are its strongest points. You may perform analytics using Apache Spark, from data ingestion to distributed computation.

    AI And Machine Learning

    Many data scientists lack expertise in the fields and methods of machine learning. Neural networks, reinforcement learning, adversarial learning, etc., are examples of this.

    You must be familiar with machine learning techniques like supervised machine learning, decision trees, logistic regression, etc., if you want to differentiate yourself from other data scientists.

    These abilities will assist you in resolving various data science issues that are predicated on forecasts of significant organisational results.

    The use of knowledge from several branches of machine learning is necessary for data science.

    According to a survey conducted by Kaggle, only a small fraction of data professionals are proficient in advanced machine learning techniques like unsupervised machine learning, supervised machine learning, time series analysis, natural language processing, outlier detection, recommendation engines, computer vision, survival analysis, adversarial learning, and reinforcement learning.

    Working with numerous data sets is a requirement in data science. You might want to become knowledgeable about machine learning.


    Data science is a rapidly growing field with a high demand for skilled professionals. Understanding what data science learning includes is essential for anyone interested in pursuing a career in this field.

    From programming languages to statistical concepts, data visualisation, machine learning algorithms, deep learning, and big data technologies, there are numerous essential components to learn.

    However, with dedication, persistence, and a willingness to learn, anyone can master the essential skills needed for data science.

    In conclusion, this comprehensive guide has provided an overview of what data science learning includes. By mastering the skills covered in this guide, you'll be well on your way to becoming a skilled data scientist.

    However, keep in mind that learning data science is an ongoing process, and you must keep up with the latest tools and technologies to stay relevant in the field. So, whether you're a beginner or an experienced professional, keep learning, keep practising, and keep exploring the exciting world of data science. With hard work and dedication, you can achieve your goals and succeed in the field of data science.

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    Frequently Asked Questions

    Yes, you can learn data science without a background in programming. However, it's essential to learn programming languages to manipulate and analyse data.

    Python is the most popular programming language used in data science due to its simplicity, versatility, and large community support.

    Tableau is a data visualisation tool used to create interactive dashboards and reports.

    No, you don't need a degree in data science to become a data scientist. However, having a degree in a related field, such as computer science, mathematics, or statistics, can be helpful.

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